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Can I Be an Actuary with a Math Degree? Exploring Your Career Path

A career as an actuary is an appealing option for those with a strong mathematical background. Actuaries are professionals who apply their mathematical and statistical expertise to forecast and manage financial risks. They are in demand primarily by insurance companies, but also work in the fields of investments, pensions, and consulting. If you have a math degree and are considering a career in actuarial science, you may be wondering whether your degree is sufficient for entering the profession.

The good news is that a solid foundation in mathematics is essential for aspiring actuaries. While actuarial science degrees are available from select institutions, it is not a requirement to enter the field. In fact, degrees in mathematics, statistics, finance, and economics are also considered highly relevant and beneficial. Actuaries with these degrees can enhance their knowledge and skills further by taking specialized courses in actuarial science or pursuing certifications, which are often a requirement for career advancement in the profession.

By pairing your math degree with relevant experience and professional certifications, you can confidently pursue a career in actuarial science. The work of an actuary is both challenging and rewarding, allowing you to apply your mathematical skills to real-world financial problems, and your academic background will help you excel in this dynamic field.

Math Degree and Actuarial Science

A math degree can be a strong foundation for a career in actuarial science. Actuarial science involves the systematic study of insurance data, assessing risks, and calculating the potential financial impact of adverse events. It requires a strong background in mathematics, statistics, and business.

Mathematics is the core of actuarial science, and a degree in this field equips future actuaries with valuable analytical and problem-solving skills. Moreover, a math degree typically covers essential topics such as statistics, probability, and calculus, which play a crucial role in actuarial work.

While some actuaries pursue a specific degree in actuarial science, others successfully enter the field with degrees in mathematics, statistics, economics, or even computer science. These areas of study provide the necessary quantitative skills and knowledge needed to evaluate and manage risk in various industries.

In addition to a strong math background, aspiring actuaries should also develop skills in relevant disciplines like economics and computer science. Knowledge of economics can help actuaries understand the financial markets better and make more informed decisions. Computer science skills can be beneficial for analyzing large datasets and creating models to predict future trends and risks.

Most actuaries begin their careers by earning a bachelor’s degree in actuarial science, mathematics, or a related field. However, having a degree is not enough to become a certified actuary. Actuaries must pass a series of professional exams administered by professional organizations like the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). Gaining relevant internship or work experience can also be beneficial in preparing for these exams and entering the actuarial profession.

In conclusion, a math degree can serve as an excellent foundation for a career in actuarial science. A strong understanding of mathematics, combined with knowledge in related disciplines like statistics, economics, and computer science, can help aspiring actuaries build the skills needed to excel in this challenging and rewarding field.

Actuary Certifications

The journey to becoming an actuary typically begins with a Bachelor’s degree in a relevant field, such as mathematics, actuarial science, or statistics. A math degree can provide a solid foundation for those aiming to become an actuary. The actual certification process involves passing a series of exams and fulfilling other requirements set by actuarial organizations. The primary organizations responsible for actuarial certifications in the United States are the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS).

Society of Actuaries (SOA)

The Society of Actuaries offers professional certifications in various areas of actuarial practice such as life insurance, health insurance, retirement benefits, and enterprise risk management. The certification process consists of two levels: Associate-level certification and Fellowship.

  • Associate-level Certification: Candidates must pass a series of preliminary exams, and complete the Fundamentals of Actuarial Practice (FAP) course and Validation by Educational Experience (VEE) requirements. After fulfilling these requirements, candidates are awarded the ASA (Associate of the Society of Actuaries) designation.

  • Fellowship: Becoming a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries (FSA) requires candidates to complete additional specialized exams and modules, building on their ASA knowledge. The FSA designation signifies advanced expertise in a chosen area of actuarial practice.

Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS)

The Casualty Actuarial Society focuses on property and casualty insurance, such as automobile, homeowners, and workers compensation insurance. Like the SOA, CAS certification involves two levels: Associate-level certification and Fellowship.

  • Associate-level Certification: Candidates must pass a series of preliminary exams and complete the Validation by Educational Experience (VEE) requirements. Upon completing these requirements, they are awarded the ACAS (Associate of the Casualty Actuarial Society) designation.

  • Fellowship: To become a Fellow of the Casualty Actuarial Society (FCAS), candidates are required to pass additional advanced exams. The FCAS designation indicates an in-depth understanding of property and casualty actuarial practices.

Both the SOA and CAS emphasize the importance of ongoing professional development and have continuing education requirements to maintain an actuary’s professional certification. Throughout the certification process, candidates develop a range of skills and knowledge essential to the actuarial profession, demonstrating their expertise and commitment to the field.

Skills Required for an Actuary

Technical Skills

Actuaries need a strong foundation in mathematics, particularly in probability, statistics, calculus, and other advanced mathematical concepts. They apply their math skills to forecast financial risks, as well as design and evaluate insurance, pension, and investment plans. In addition to mathematics, actuaries are expected to have knowledge in economics and finance.

Computer skills are necessary for actuaries, as they often use programming languages and software to analyze statistical data, create models, and simulate real-world financial scenarios. Common software and programming languages used in the actuarial field include Excel, R, Python, and SQL. Familiarity with data analysis techniques and tools is essential for an actuary to succeed in their role.

Communication and Soft Skills

Actuaries need to possess excellent communication skills, as they frequently collaborate with other professionals such as underwriters, marketing teams, and business analysts. They must be able to communicate complex mathematical concepts and the results of their analyses clearly and concisely, both in written and verbal forms.

Soft skills are crucial for actuaries, who often interact with clients and colleagues. They must be able to convey information effectively while maintaining a level of professionalism. Problem-solving skills are also vital, as actuaries are faced with challenges when analyzing data or developing financial models. They must apply their mathematical knowledge and creativity to find solutions to complex problems.

In conclusion, to succeed as an actuary with a math degree, one must develop a strong foundation in mathematics, refine their computational and data analysis abilities, and continually improve their communication and soft skills. This combination of knowledge and skills will ensure an actuary’s ability to effectively analyze financial risks, design viable solutions, and communicate their findings with various stakeholders.

Actuary Career Path

Entry-Level Jobs and Internships

A math degree can be a strong foundation for becoming an actuary, as actuaries use mathematical and statistical concepts to analyze data and assess risk. Entry-level positions in this field often include roles such as actuarial analyst or actuarial assistant. Gaining practical experience through internships or actuarial trainee programs can provide valuable insights into the profession and increase your job prospects. Additionally, job outlook for actuaries is generally positive, with steady growth anticipated in the coming years.

Continuing Education and Advancement

Since actuaries often need to obtain professional certifications, your math degree can serve as a solid starting point for completing the required examinations. The first two exams, the Probability Exam (Exam P) and the Financial Mathematics Exam (Exam FM), are crucial to start your actuarial career journey. Over time, actuaries can advance within their organizations, with opportunities such as becoming a partner or moving into consulting roles. Continuing education, keeping up with industry trends, and building a strong professional network are critical components in achieving long-term career success as an actuary.

Industries and Job Roles for Actuaries


Actuaries play a crucial role in the insurance industry, where they help develop and price insurance products. They use their mathematical and statistical knowledge to analyze data, estimate the probability of events happening, and calculate the potential costs and financial impact of these events. This analysis allows insurance companies to set appropriate premiums, manage risk, and ensure they have sufficient funds to cover liabilities associated with their insurance policies.

Risk Management

Actuaries contribute significantly to risk management by identifying, quantifying, and managing various types of risks faced by businesses. They work in multiple industries, including finance, healthcare, and government, where they assist in the development of risk management strategies and policies within organizations. Actuaries use their expertise in enterprise risk management to model potential events, analyze their likelihood and impact, and make recommendations based on their findings.

Corporate Finance and Investments

In corporate finance and investments, actuaries provide valuable insights into the long-term financial stability of companies. They help develop investment strategies, optimize capital allocation, and manage financial risks associated with various projects. In addition, actuaries contribute to retirement planning and pension management by assessing the financial health of pension funds and forecasting future liabilities.


Actuarial consultants offer their expertise to various organizations, analyzing complex financial data and providing customized solutions. They may work with insurance companies, financial institutions, government agencies, or other businesses in need of actuarial services. These professionals assist with risk analysis, forecasting, pricing, and product development, among other responsibilities.

Data Science and Machine Learning

As businesses continue to grow and rely on data, actuaries have found a place in data science and machine learning fields. They apply their mathematical and statistical skills to analyze large datasets and develop predictive models that help businesses make better decisions. In this context, actuaries can work in various industries, including technology, marketing, healthcare, and beyond, leveraging their expertise to solve complex problems and deliver valuable insights.

Work Environment and Compensation

Work-Life Balance

Actuaries often enjoy a strong work-life balance. They typically work in office settings, with most employed by insurance companies, although some work as consultants and may travel to meet with clients. Actuaries apply their mathematical expertise, statistical knowledge, economic and financial analyses, and problem-solving skills to various business problems, such as evaluating the economic costs of risk and uncertainty in insurance and financial fields1.


Actuaries tend to earn fairly high salaries. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual wage for actuaries was $111,030 in May 20202. Compensation can vary depending on factors such as the level of professional experience, the industry in which the actuary is employed, and the geographic location of the job. Actuaries also typically receive attractive benefits packages, including health insurance, retirement plans, and pension plans3.

Job Outlook

The job outlook for actuaries is quite positive. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an 18% growth in employment for actuaries from 2020 to 2030, which is much faster than the average for all occupations4. This growth is driven by demand for qualified professionals who can analyze the increasing volume of data available to companies, like those in the insurance industry, to establish accurate pricing and manage risks. The future is especially promising for actuaries with strong backgrounds in applied mathematics, statistics, and knowledge of industry-specific software tools5.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the prerequisites for an actuary?

To become an actuary, you typically need a strong foundation in mathematics and statistics. While a degree in these fields is not always mandatory, most actuaries have a background in math, actuarial science, or related areas. Pursuing relevant coursework and passing industry-specific exams are essential in entering the actuarial profession.

What courses should I take in my math degree to pursue an actuarial career?

In addition to core mathematics and statistics courses, aspiring actuaries should consider taking courses in probability, risk management, and applied mathematics. Some universities also offer specialized actuarial science programs or courses to help build a strong foundation in the field. The more you can tailor your math degree towards actuarial studies, the better prepared you will be for the profession.

How do I transition from a math degree to an actuarial career?

After earning a math degree, the next step is to begin preparing for and taking the actuarial exams. These exams are crucial for career progression and are administered by actuarial organizations such as the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). Gaining relevant work experience, such as internships or entry-level roles in insurance or finance, can also help you transition into an actuarial career.

Do actuaries need a background in finance?

While not strictly required, having a background in finance is beneficial for actuaries, as many work in insurance, investment, and financial services industries. Acquiring financial knowledge can help you understand the context and applications of actuarial concepts, ensuring you’re well-rounded in your profession.

How does having a math degree affect actuarial job prospects?

A math degree can lead to a successful actuarial career, as it demonstrates strong analytical and problem-solving skills, key attributes for actuaries. However, it’s essential to supplement your math degree with relevant industry knowledge and experience, as well as passing the required actuarial exams to become more competitive in the job market.

What exams are necessary to become a fully-qualified actuary?

The exams required to become a fully-qualified actuary depend on the actuarial organization you choose to pursue (SOA or CAS). The exams typically cover topics such as probability, financial mathematics, actuarial models, and advanced topics in the respective specialization. Successfully completing these exams, along with meeting other experience and educational requirements, will lead to full actuarial credentials and a successful career.